Jobtech Taxonomy

‘Jobtech’ refers to digital platforms which connect people to work opportunities that build livelihoods. The Jobtech Alliance pieced together the following taxonomy with feedback from over 100 stakeholders in the ecosystem. If you have any feedback, or feel that anything is missing, please message us at [email protected]



Platforms for offline work

Layman's terms: Platforms where the work is mediated online but delivered offline. The World Bank calls this 'location-based platforms'.

  • Taxi / ride hailing / delivery / logistics: Platforms which match drivers/riders to households or businesses for gigs

  • Home services / technical services: Platforms which match technicians like beauticians or plumbers to households or busineses for gigs or short-term services

  • Cleaning / domestic work: Platforms which match cleaners to gig- or ongoing work with households or businesses

  • Care services:  Platforms which match careworkers like elderly carers, nannies, or medical services to households or businesses for gigs or ongoing work.

  • Jobs boards / recruitment platforms: Platforms which host job vacancies (including full-time, part-time or internships / apprenticeship). They may offer hands-on recruitment/vetting or additional services to jobseekers like online/offline training.

  • Distributed manufacturing:  Platforms which distribute large manufacturing orders (such as for beauty items) between a distributed workforce where producers make items from home or personal studios.

Platforms for digitally delivered work

Layman's terms: Platforms where the work is mediated and delivered online. Some people call this 'cloud work'.

What it's not: Online jobs when the work is not delivered through the platform (ie jobs boards)

  • Skilled online freelancing: Platforms which match skilled workers (clerical, writing, professional services, virtual assistants, software) to gigs or ongoing work delivered through the platform

  • Managed services / Global business services / BPO (including managed microtasks): Businesses which manage projects or contracts (largely for other businesses) delivered by multiple semi-skilled/skilled workers.

  • Task-based or distributed microwork / microtasks: Platforms which connect semi-skilled/skilled workers to individual digital microwork tasks.

  • X-to-earn / play-to-earn: Platforms which provide earning opportunities for platform participants by undertaking certain activities through the service (e.g., playing, voting, creating).

  • Platforms for creative content producers / influencers: Platforms which enable influencers or creatives to increase their earnings through increased distribution or market reach, or business management.

  • Trading platforms for digital products: Platforms which enable people to earn income through the purchase and trade of digital products like cryptocurrency arbitrage platforms or NFT trades.

Digital services for micro-enterprises

Layman's terms: Platforms that improve access to market, business performance, or productivity of self-employed individuals or microenterprises

What it's not: When only fintech. When targeted only at larger scale SMEs

  • E-commerce marketplaces: Platforms which enable microenterprises to more easily earn income from selling products through centralised listing platforms or marketplaces.

  • Social commerce / digitally-enabled agent models: Digital platforms which enable microentrepreneurs or agents to more effectively sell products or services to their networks

  • Business management tools / vertically-integrated platforms: Platforms which enable microenterprises to increase earnings or profits through enhanced efficiencies and reduced costs.

Tech-enabled Skilling

Layman's terms: Edtech platforms that equip people for the world of work

What it's not: When there is no tech product

  • Course / guided / cohort-based learning: Edtech platforms on work topics, where students participate in a guided learning experience (may have some offline component)

  • On-demand / self-paced learning: Edtech platforms where learners can engage in content at their own pace (channels could include SMS, video, gamified)

  • Digital apprenticeships / Mentorship / internships: Platforms which facilitate digital apprenticeships/internships, or connect people to mentors

  • Professional networking / labour market information platforms: Social network or informational platforms focused on the world of work 

  • Assessment / credentialling: Platforms which provide professional vetting or credentialing to enhance employability of users

Digital tools for worker enablement

Layman's terms: Digital platforms that provide workers with tools that enhance their rights, benefits and protections

What it's not: When there's no tech product or tech integration

  • Identity / Reputation: Platforms which enable users to verify or use their professional identity or reputation to enhance livelihoods outcomes

  • Alternative data tools / benefits: Digital services which enable jobtech platform workers to use their data to improve livelihoods outcomes, access benefits or similar services. This could include some fintechs built on top of platform data

  • Rights / legal / collective engagement: Digital platforms which build worker rights through collaborative engagement, legal engagement, or others

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